ATLANTA, Twenty-six percent of US teenage girls contracted at least one of four major sexually transmitted diseases, a study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released Tuesday said. The CDCP estimates 3.2 million US teen girls have an STD.
The study examined the sexual behavior of 838 teenage girls, half of whom admitted to having sex during their teen years. Of that half, 40 percent had contracted an STD, LifeSiteNews.com reported Thursday.
Nearly half of the black teens tested had an STD, percent of the white teens were infected. Half the tested teens who had had three or more partners were infected, compared to a 20 percent among those who had had only one sexual partner.
Of the tested teens, 18 percent had human papilloma virus, 4 percent had chlamydia, 2.5 percent had trichomoniasis and 2 percent had genital herpes.
Valerie Huber, executive director of the National Abstinence Education Association, commented, "Teens are erroneously taught that a condom makes sex safe. When we learn that one in four teen girls is infected with a sexually transmitted disease (STD), it becomes clear that the contraception-based approach taught in 75 percent of U.S. schools is failing young people."
By United Press International.
This news arrived on: 03/12/2008
Study: Monkeys 'pay' for sex by grooming
By GILLIAN WONG, Associated Press Writer
SINGAPORE - Male macaque monkeys pay for sex by grooming females, according to a recent study that suggests the primates may treat sex as a commodity.
"In primate societies, grooming is the underlying fabric of it all," Dr. Michael Gumert, a primatologist at the NanyangTechnologicalUniversity in Singapore, said in a telephone interview Saturday.
"It's a sign of friendship and family, and it's also something that can be exchanged for sexual services," Gumert said.
Gumert's findings, reported in New Scientist last week, resulted from a 20-month observation of about 50 long-tailed macaques in a reserve in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Gumert found after a male grooms a female, the likelihood that she will engage in sexual activity with the male was about three times more than if the grooming had not occurred.
And as with other commodities, the value of sex is affected by supply and demand factors: A male would spend more time grooming a female if there were fewer females in the vicinity.
"And when the female supply is higher, the male spends less time on grooming ... The mating actually becomes cheaper depending on the market," Gumert said.
Other experts not involved in the study welcomed Gumert's research, saying it was a major effort in systematically studying the interaction of organisms in ways in which an exchange of commodities or services can be observed — a theory known as biological markets.
Dr. Peter Hammerstein, a professor at the Institute for Theoretical Biology at HumboldtUniversity in Berlin and Dr. Ronald Noe, a primatologist at the University of Louis-Pasteur in Strasbourg, France, first proposed the concept of biological markets in 1994.
"It is not a rare phenomenon in nature that males have to make some 'mating effort' in order to get a female's 'permission' to mate," Hammerstein said in an interview, likening the effort to a "fee" that the male pays.
"The interesting result of Dr. Gumert's research on macaque mating is that the mating market seems to have an influence on the amount of this fee," Hammerstein said.
Hammserstein said Gumert's findings indicate the monkeys are capable of adjusting their behavior to "different market conditions."
Gumert completed his fieldwork in February 2005 and first published his findings in the November issue of "Animal Behaviour," a scientific monthly journal.
Various symptoms in autoimmune diseases, including endocrine imbalances and pain, contribute to low libido in autoimmune disease. Help is available.
Low libido, which is a condition of reduced sexual drive or desire, is a frequent symptom in patients with autoimmune diseases. Low libido can accompany other side effects of autoimmune disease, such as fatigue, muscle weakness, nutrient deficiencies, and depression or it can occur as a result of hormone imbalances in patients with autoimmune endocrine disorders. Certain medications used to treat autoimmune disorders can also contribute to impaired sexual desire. Stress, including the stress of dealing with an autoimmune condition, can also cause low libido.
Addressing the Causes
In patients with autoimmune endocrine disorders, restoring levels of thyroid hormone and DHEA are usually the first steps in improving libido. However, in the cause of thyroid dysfunction, restoring levels to the normal range may not be adequate. Individuals have unique optimal levels of both levothyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Blood tests for both FT4 and FT3 and trials with different forms of therapy may be necessary for optimal results. In patients using anti-thyroid drugs for hyperthyroidism, the use of block and replace therapy, in which thyroid hormone is added to the anti-thyroid drug may be necessary to ensure optimal levels of both FT4 and FT3.
In patients with malabsorption disorders such as celiac disease or Crohn’s disease, nutrient deficiencies can be common, particularly deficiencies of oil soluble vitamins and essential oils. Supplementation with vitamins A and D, evening primrose oil, flaxseed oil and other omega-3 essential oils can help improve libido.
A number of illicit drugs such as marijuana can contribute to low libido. Alcohol abuse can also impair libido. Drugs that interfere with libido include some antidepressants and medications used for the treatment of hypertension. If prescription medications are suspected of contributing to low libido, patients can ask their doctors if a different medication can be used instead.
Stress reduction techniques, such as yoga, meditation, and other forms of light exercise, are all reported to improve libido. The hormone DHEA, which is often used as a treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is also a common treatment for low libido. The herbs gingko biloba and maca are also recommended for improving libido. Low testosterone levels or imbalances in progesterone and estrogen can also contribute to low libido. Supplements, either topical or compounded oral formulations, are often used to treat low libido when hormone imbalances are found. In traditional Chinese medicine, treating imbalances of yin and yang improve libido.
Before trying any herbal remedies or supplements, patients should check with their doctors to make sure there are no contraindications or drug interferences. Patients may also want to check with their doctors about having blood tests for DHEA, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone as well as FT4 and FT3 to see if hormone treatments are recommended.